Swine Raising for Meat Production In the Philippines
Roundworm infection is caused by the bacterial agent scientifically known as Ascaris lumbricoides. Symptoms of this disease depends heavily on the number of worms present in the pigs, management and nutrition of the animals. Pigs infected with this disease demonstrate a slow growth rate, thinness, thick and dull hair growth. Pigs may expel worms through vomit or feces.
This disease may be treated by oral administration of a de-wormer through fees or drinking water. Piperazine dewormers are effective treatment of this disease.
Swine Dysentery is caused by the bacteria Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. This disease is common to pigs at weight twelve to 75 kg. Severe cases sometimes occur in sows and their sucking piglets. The bacteria associated with these diseases causes a severe inflammation of the large intestine with dysentery or bloody mucus diarrhea.
This disease is characterized by loss of appetite, fever, weakness, rough coat and watery feces spotted with blood or mucus.
Twitching of the tail, slight reddening of the skin, sunken eyes and dehydration may also be observed. Sudden death may occur in heavy finisher pigs.
Antibiotics in feed for two weeks may be used to treat this disease. New arrivals should be quarantined for seven days and fed high level antibiotics to prevent this disease.
Costs and marketing
Important factors should be considered before venturing into the swine raising enterprise.
A backyard operation requires investments in housing facility with a concrete floor that is livable for hogs, and a viable and healthy seed stock. The backyard operation also requires operation expenses such as feeds, veterinary services, medication and supplements. Livestock insurance is also a n operation expense to be considered.
Large scale operations require fixed investments that include hog houses, facilities and equipment. Required hog houses are farrowing houses or stalls, a gilt/dry/gestating stall, a boar house, a weaning house, a growing/fattening house and an isolation house. Equipment investments for a large-scale operation include water pumps, electrical connections, hammer will, feed mixer, hog scales, and other farm and sanitation equipment. Stock investment are sows or gilts and boars. Large-scale operation expenses are on hog feeds, veterinary services and medication, vitamin supplements, repair and maintenance of buildings and maintenance of machinery and equipment.
Hogs are marketed at weight of 8o kg. There are three ways to market finishing pigs: through a middleman, direct marketing, or auction marketing. Middlemen act as buying or selling agents. Direct marketing to meat processors may be done without the sue of middlemen. Auctioning at a market may also be done where animals are sold to buyers with the highest acceptable price per kilo liveweight or per head. It is important to scout the market for the most viable marketing type in the area before starting a hog farm.
Proper shipment and transport of the pigs should be observed when marketing a large number of hogs. This minimizes losses caused by shrinkage, bruises, injuries and possible deaths.
Large animals should be separated from smaller pigs by a partition. Loading facilities should be provided to proper loading of animals. Beddings of sand and saw dust should be provided when necessary. These beddings should be wet down before loading top keep the animals cool and comfortable in hot weather. Transport vehicles should not be over crowded or over loaded. Hogs should be protected from stress and excitement and should be given enough rest before they are butchered. The animals should not be overfed before transport to prevent vomiting or suffocation.
Record keeping is a key tool in a successful operation and marketing. Record keeping must be kept simple and precise as this can be used for improvements and adjustments to achieve the maximum profitability of the farm and successful daily farm operation.
The two types of records are economical and technical. Economical records refer to the financial side of the operation. This record includes price of meat, price of weanlings and price of feed. Technical records are production and farm schedule. This includes age of sow, farrowing dates, and number of piglets.