Swine Raising for Meat Production in the Philippines (Conclusion)
Here’s an in-depth look at the world of swine raising and the potential business you can get out of it.
Mastitis-metritis-agalactia, syndrome or MMA syndrome, also known as post-partum dysgalactia, is commonly caused by nonspecific or unknown sources. Mastitis and agalactia is the absence or lack of milk in sows.
MMA syndrome may be caused by infection or stress from excitement or difficulty in farrowing. This condition may also be caused by digestive difficulty or by environmental factors.
Metritis is referred as the nonspecific inflammation of the uterus and is associated with abortion, difficult delivery, or retained placenta.
Symptoms of MMA syndrome include abnormal body temperature, reddish-brown mucus discharge with tissues of placental membranes that attract flies. There is also tenderness and warmth in the mammary tissue.
Prevention of MMA syndrome can be done by regularly checking the health status of the breeding sows. Sows with a history in breeding troubles should be replaced. Reduce incidence of MMA by providing proper diet, exercise, and clean, disinfected farrowing environment. A highly digestible, mild laxative ration should be provided for sows after farrowing. Stress and udder injuries should be eliminated.
Affected sows by mastitis may be treated by antibiotic infusion into the udder. Hot compress and mild antiseptic should be applied externally. A pituitary extract containing oxytoxin should be administered.
Metritis may be treated by inserting antibiotics inside the uterus and systematic administration of sulfa injections and other antibiotics.
Pneumonia-disease complex is characterized by coughing, difficulty in breathing, sneezing, chilling, eye and nasal discharge, and muscular cramps Symptoms of this disease are associated with swine plague, swine flu, athropic rhinitis and enzootic pneumonia.
This disease may be prevented by proper management, and a hygienic and, well-ventilated housing. Overcrowding should be avoided as most respiratory diseases are caused by inhalation of infected air particles. Clean water should be provided at all times, as well as nutritious feed and a vitamin antibiotic feed supplement.
Known treatment is not available for swine flu, swine plague and enzootic pneumonia. Antibiotics like tetracycline and sulfa drugs may be used for prevention. Speedy recovery’ may be achieved by use of stimulants and antiseptics.
Roundworm infection is caused by the bacterial agent scientifically known as Ascaris lumbricoides. Symptoms of this disease depends heavily on the number of worms present in the pigs, management and nutrition, of the animals. Pigs infected with this disease demonstrate a slow growth rate, thinness, thick and dull hair growth. Pigs may expel worms through vomit or feces.
This disease may be treated by oral administration of a de-wormer through fees or drinking water. Piperazine dewormers are effective treatment of this disease.
Swine Dysentery is caused by the bacteria Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. This disease is common to pigs at weight twelve to 75 kg. Severe cases sometimes occur in sows and their sucking piglets. The bacteria associated with these diseases causes a severe inflammation of the large intestine with dysentery or bloody mucus diarrhea.
This disease is characterized by loss of appetite, fever, weakness, rough coat and watery feces spotted with blood or mucus. Twitching of the tail, slight reddening of the skin, sunken eyes and dehydration may also be observed. Sudden death may occur in heavy finisher pigs.
Antibiotics in feed for two weeks may be used to treat this disease. New arrivals should be quarantined for seven days and fed high-level antibiotics to prevent this disease.
Costs and marketing
Important factors should be considered before venturing into the swine raising enterprise.
A backyard operation requires investments in housing facility with a concrete floor that is livable for hogs, and a viable and healthy seed stock. The backyard operation also requires operation expenses such as feeds, veterinary services, medication and supplements. Livestock insurance is also an operation expense to be considered.
Large-scale operations require fixed investments that include hog houses, facilities and equipment. Required hog houses are farrowing houses or stalls, a gilt/dry/gestating stall, a boar house, a weaning house, a growing/fattening house and an isolation house. Equipment investments for a large-scale operation include water pumps, electrical connections, hammer will, feed mixer, hog scales, and other farm and sanitation equipment.
Hogs are marketed at weight of 80 kg. There are three ways to market finishing pigs: through a middleman, direct marketing, or auction marketing. Middlemen, act as buying or selling agents.
Direct marketing to meat processors may be done without the sue of middlemen. Auctioning at a market may also be done where animals are sold to buyers with the highest acceptable price per kilo live-weight or per head. It is important to scout the market for the most viable marketing type in the area before starting a hog farm.
Proper shipment and transport of the pigs should be observed when marketing a large number of hogs. This minimizes losses caused by shrinkage, bruises, injuries and possible deaths.
Large animals should be separated from smaller pigs by a partition. Loading facilities should be provided to proper loading of animals. Beddings of sand and saw dust should be provided when necessary. These beddings should be wet down before loading top keep the animals cool and comfortable in hot weather. Transport vehicles should not be over crowded or over loaded. Hogs should be protected from stress and excitement and should be given enough rest before they are butchered. The animals should not be overfed before transport to prevent vomiting or suffocation.
Record keeping is a key tool in a successful operation and marketing. Record keeping must be kept simple and precise as this can be used for improvements and adjustments to achieve the maximum profitability of the farm and successful daily farm operation.
The two types of records are economical and technical. Economical records refer to the financial side, of the operation. This record includes price of meat, price of weanlings and price of feed.
Technical records are production and farm schedule. This includes age of sow, farrowing dates, and number of piglets.