Raising Goats (Conclusion)
Remember to wipe the mouth, body and nose of the newborn using a dry cloth. Massage its thoraric area to initiate proper breathing immediately. The mother normally does this for you but most mothers would be too weak after delivery. Difficulty in delivery, often called dystocia, is one common case encountered during birth. Before attempting to pull out the kid, make sure the presentation is right-both legs and head are presented in posterior position. A practicing vet should be present in difficult cases.
Newborns must be able to stick an hour after birth. Colostrums will do for those who can’t. First time mothers are often reluctant to suckle their young so restraining them could help. Those who are weaned early can go back to being in heat after i to 2 months.
Milking and proper caring
If conception and breeding is successful, milk production drops after one month and the abdomen’s right side will start to fill up. You must be able to establish a strict milking period for your herd, say twice a day, which must not be advanced or delayed from the exact time. Goats can and might withhold milk, so, routine changes should be avoided. On the other hand, mill: letdown can be set off by washing the udder with lukewarm water and wiping it with a clean towel. Make sure to clean all milking utensils.
Stop milking a pregnant doe at least a month before kidding date. This will give her enough for proper lactation after birth. Put the does in one separate pen and separate them one week before kidding dates. To avoid any difficulty that might occur, help the pregnant doe during kidding.
Common goat diseases
Aside from parasites, look out for a few diseases you must protect your goats from. Some of them are:
Anthrax – Anthrax infection is rare in humans though it occurs very occasionally in ruminants such as goats, antelopes and cattles. It is an acute infectious disease caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis and is typically deadly in some forms. Anthrax most commonly occurs in wild and domestic ruminants, but it can also occur in humans when they are exposed to infected animals or the slightest tissue from animals that have been infected. The infection of ruminants proceeds as follows: the spore is located and engulfed by phagocytes of the immune system. The spore turns into a bacillus, multiplies, and eventually bursts the cell, releasing bacilli into the bloodstream. There they release lethal toxin and edema which are known to target many distinct cells and tissue types. Characterized by sudden fever, loss of appetite, swelling of chest, head, belly and legs and even sudden death; caused by direct ingestion of infected material, like eating flies and indirect contact with other carriers.
Bacterial pneumonia – Symptoms include high fever, coughing and other respiratory distress that might lead to gradual emaciation and even death. Respond with antibiotic on early cases, clean the infected environment. Antibiotics are the treatment of choice for bacterial pneumonia, depending on the nature of the pneumonia, the microorganisms most commonly causing pneumonia in the geographical region, and the immune status and underlying health of the individual.
Bloat – Also known as torsion, gastric torsion, and gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a medical condition in which the stomach becomes becomes overstretched by excessive gas content. Bloat becomes fatal within a matter of minutes. Treatment usually involves resuscitation with intravenous fluid therapy and emergency surgery. The stomach is initially decompressed by passing a stomach tube, or if that is not possible, multiple trocars can be passed through the skin into the stomach to remove the gas.
This is caused by eating copped green grasses, feeding whole, chopped or pellet grasses or inability of the animal to eructate usually with systemic disease or due to foreign bodies and abscesses, inflaminatory swelling, enlarged thoratic nodes and also dysfunction such as athropy of the muscles.
Contagious ecthyma/ORF – Caused by contamination in feces, manure, feeds, bedding or equipment. It is also known as contagious pustular dermatitis, sore month, contagious ecthyma, and scabby mouth. ORF virus can also infect humans, through direct contact or formites. It is characterized by scabs and mucus in the skin of the face, genitalia, feet, month, ears, gums, tongue, palate and other parts of the body. Proper vaccination will prevent further cases. Symptoms also include papules or pustules on the lips and muzzle, and less commonly in the mouth of young goats and on the eyelids, and feet. The lesions progress to thick crusts which may bleed. Orf in the mouths may prevent suckling and cause weight loss. A live virus vaccine is made from scab material and usually given to ewes at the age of two months, but only to goats, during an outbreak.
Hemorrhagic septicemia – Normally present in the nasopharyngeal area and caused by ingestion of inhalation of infective agents. Symptoms include swelling of the throat ad brisket congestion of mucus membrane. Prevent with parenteral antibiotics and sulfa drugs. The therapy rests on antibiotics, surgical drainage of infected fluid collections, fluid replacement and appropriate support for organ dysfunction. Ensuring adequate nutrition, if necessarv bv parenteral nutrition, is important during prolonged illness.
Infectious arthritis – Characterized by swollen knees, lameness and pain in the joints-hock, elbow and knees-of the animal. It should be suspected when one joint is affected and the goat is feverish. In seeding arthritis, several joints can be affected simultaneously; this is especially the case when the infection is caused by staphylococcus or gonococcus bacteria. Minimize infection by treating the wound with and proper hygiene management in infected areas. Antibiotic and sulfa drugs might help.
Mastitis – This is often referred to as the inflammation of the mammalian breast. It is called puerperal mastitis when it occurs to lactating mothers. Caused by the blocking of the mill: ducts while the mother is breastfeeding. It can cause painful areas on the breasts or nipples and may very well lead to fever of flu. Except in heavy cases it is not necessary to wean them because of mastitis; in fact, nursing is the most effective way to remove the blockage and alleviate the symptoms, and is not harmful to the baby. Sudden weaning can cause or exacerbate mastitis symptoms. When milk starts being bloodstained and fever, loss of appetite, depression and dehydration can be observed, start intramammary infusion of antibiotics. Early and repeated treatments must be applied to prevent further complications.
Tetanus – The wound must be cleaned; dead and infected tissue should be removed. To decrease the bacteria, you can use metroninazole. Penicillin, too has been used to treat tetanus, All tetanus victims should be vaccinated against tetanus or offered a booster vaccine if they have been previously vaccinated. Treat wounds with hydrogen peroxide until completely healed using clean instruments in castration and dehorning. Might be caused by direct infections from microorganisms in their wounds.
Marketing the herd
PCARRD and the Livestock Development Council (LDC) of the Department of Agriculture (DA) recently held a forum on the “Competitiveness of goat marketing system in the Philippines, where strategies for breeders, slaughter animals, and milking animals, addresses the marketing-related issues and proposed possible interventions were discussed. Participants saw the need to establish a Goat Marketing Board (GMB) that would address issues such as variations in prices, quality, and standards, as well as seasonality of demand. Moreover, to standardize the marketing system, some proponents spoke of putting in place a breed registry to curb the lack of accredited breeder farms.